Why Save Tibet's Environment?
Environmental Conditions in Tibet
Environmental Devastation as a Result of Chinese Occupation
Nuclearisation and Militarisation
Development for Whom?
How You Can Help Tibet Through Eco-Friendly Actions
Environment and Development Desk (EDD)
DIIR Publications on Tibet's Environment and Development
News Reports on Tibet's Environment and Development
For more than two thousand years, Tibet with its three administrative regions, Dotoe, Domed and U-Tsang existed as a sovereign nation. The communist Chinese invaded and occupied the country in 1949/1950 and today China refers only to the so-called "Tibet Autonomous Region" ("TAR") as Tibet.
Tibet, commonly known as the "roof of the world", is situated at the very heart of Asia. It is one of the most environmentally strategic areas of the continent. Tibet lies to the north of India, Nepal, Bhutan and Burma, west of China and south of East Turkistan. Covering a total area of 2.5 million sqare kilometres and more than two-thirds the size of India, Tibet stretches 2,500 kilometres from west to east and 1,500 kilometres from north to south. It has an average height of 3,650 metres above sea level and many of the peaks reach beyond 8000 metres, such as Mount Everest (Mt. Chomolungma) the world?s tallest.
The Tibetan Plateau is the highest and largest plateau on the earth and towers over the central part of Asia. It is bounded by the Himalayan mountains to the south and the Altyn Tagh and Gangkar Chogley Namgyal Mountains to the north. Its western part merges with the Karakoram mountains, while its eastern portion slopes downward with the Minyak Gangkar and Khawakarpo Mountains.
Prior to the Chinese occupation, Tibet was ecologically stable and environmental conservation was an essential component of daily life. Guided by Buddhist beliefs in the interdependence of both living and non-living elements of the earth, Tibetans lived in harmony with nature. These beliefs are strengthened further by the Tibetan Buddhists traditional adherence to the principle of self-contentment: the environment should be used to fulfill one?s need and not to fufill one?s greed.
The world is increasingly interdependent, so that lasting peace-regional, national and global- can only be achieved if we think in terms of the broader interest rather than parochial needs. At this time, it is crucial that all of us, the strong and weak, contribute in our own way. H.H. the XIV Dalai Lama
With the invasion of Tibet, the nature-friendly way of life for the Tibetan people was trampled upon by a materialist Chinese ideology. The invasion was followed by wide-spread environmental destruction in Tibet, resulting in deforestation, overgrazing, uncontrolled mining, nuclear waste dumping, soil erosion, landslides and other perils. The government of China continues to extract various minerals without any environmental safeguards, and as a result, Tibet is facing an environmental crisis, which will be felt far beyond its borders and its current generation.
More than 1.2 million Tibetans or about one-sixth of the total population, have died in Tibet since 1949 from war, political persecution, imprisonment, torture and famine. Over 6000 of Tibet?s rich religious and other cultural centres have been destroyed. His Holiness the XIVth Dalai Lama, the spiritual and political leader of the Tibetans, was forced to leave Tibet in 1959 and seek asylum in India. Around 80,000 Tibetan refugees followed him and sought refuge primarily in India, Nepal and Bhutan.
Why Save Tibet's Environment?
Tibet, popularly known as the "Roof of the World", existed for over 2,000 years as a sovereign nation, with its three administrative regions, Kham, Amdo and U-Tsang, spanning 2.5 million sq. km. Communist China invaded the country in 1949. And today Beijing refers only to the so-called Tibet Autonomous Region (1.2 million sq. km) created in 1965 as "Tibet".
The Tibetan Plateau is the highest and largest plateau on earth and towers over the continent of Eurasia. It is home to over 5,000 higher plant species and over 12,000 species of vascular plants, 532 different species of birds, 126 identified minerals and has rich old growth forests.
It is also the source of many of Asia's major rivers whose tributaries are the lifeblood of millions of people in the Asian continent. Our research figures show that rivers originating from Tibet sustain the lives of 47 per cent of the world's population. Thus, the environmental issue of Tibet is not an inconsequential regional issue; it has a huge global significance warranting international attention.
Scientists have shown that the environment of the Tibetan Plateau affects the global jetstreams that blow over it. This in turn causes Pacific typhoons and the El Nino (warm ocean current) phenomenon, which stirs up ocean water causing disruption to marine food chains, affecting the weather patterns and the economy of Peru, Ecuador and the California coastline of USA, while New Zealand, Australia, India and Southern Africa reel under dreadful drought. It also has an important influence on the monsoon, which provides essential rainfall for the breadbaskets of South Asia to meet the food needs of millions of people. The monsoon contributes 70 per cent to India's annual rainfall. But excessive rain leads to flooding while little or no rain causes drought and famine in South Asia.
Ever since the Chinese occupation of Tibet, widespread environmental destruction has taken place due to logging of virgin forests, uncontrolled mining, water pollution and nuclear waste dumping, which has resulted in the degradation of grasslands, extinction of wildlife, desertification, floods, soil erosion and landslides. Also, the transfer of huge numbers of Chinese settlers into Tibet demonstrates the colonial nature of Chinese rule. Under such a system, Tibetans have been marginalised in the economic, educational, political and social spheres and Tibet's rich culture and traditions are rapidly disappearing.
Given the high altitude and the extreme climatic conditions of Tibet, the damage caused to the environment and the fragile mountain ecosystem is becoming irreversible. This is a cause of great concern not only for the Tibetan people; it has much larger ramifications. More than ever before, the need to save the Tibetan Plateau from ecological devastation is urgent because it is not a question of the survival of Tibetans, but half of humanity is at stake.
It is for this reason that His Holiness the Dalai Lama included the protection of Tibet's environment as one of the points in his Five-Point Peace Plan for Tibet, and spoke of Tibet becoming an oasis of peace and non-violence where man and nature will co-exist harmoniously.
Through extensive research this report details the destruction of Tibet's environment and the inherent dangers to our planet today. We hope this publication will fill a knowledge gap and help increase ecological awareness about Tibet to save its unique and fragile environment.
Environmental Conditions in Tibet
Tibet had one of the most successful systems of environmental protection for the inhabited regions of the world. Formal protection of wildlife and environment through parks and reserves were unnecessary as Tibetan Buddhism taught the people about the interdependence of all living and non-living elements of the nature. Buddhism prohibits the killing of animals and advocates loving compassion for sentient beings and the environment.
PLANTS: Over 100,000 species of higher plants grow in Tibet, many of them rare and endemic. These plants include about 2,000 varieties of medical herbs used in the traditional medicinal systems of Tibet, China and India. Rhododendron, saffron, bottle-brush tree, high mountain rhubarb, Himalayan alpine serratula, falconer tree and hellebonne are among the many plants found in Tibet.
There are 400 species of rhododendron on the Tibetan Plateau, which make up about 50 percent of the world?s total species. According to scientists, the Tibetan Plateau consists of over 12,000 species from 1,500 genera of vascular plants, which accounts for over half of the total genera found in China.
BIRDS: In Tibet, there are over 532 different species of birds in 57 families, which is about 70 percent of the total families found in China. Some of the birds include: storks, wild swans, Blyth?s kingfisher, geese, ducks, shorebirds, raptors, brown-chested jungle flycatchers, redstarts, finches, grey-sided thrushes, Przewalski?s parrotbills, wagtails, chickadees, large-billed bush warblers, bearded vultures, woodpeckers and nuthatches. The most famous being the black-necked crane called trung trung kaynak in Tibetan. Unfortunately, without the Tibetan sense of enviromentalism, several of these birds are threatened with extinction.
ANIMALS: The mountains and forests of Tibet are home to a vast range of animal life found only in Tibet. Many rare and endangered animals face an uncertain future unless their habitats begin to change positively. These rare and threaten animals include: the snow leopard, Tibetan takin, Himalayan black bear, wild yak (Tib.: drong), blue sheep, musk deer, golden monkey, wild ass (Tib.: kyang), Tibetan gazelle, Himalayan mouse hare, Tibetan antelope, giant panda and red panda.
FOREST: Tibet?s forests covered 25.2 million hectares. Most forests in Tibet grow on steep, isolated slopes in the river valleys of Tibet?s low lying southeastern region. The principal types are tropical montane and subtropical montane coniferous forest, with evergreen spruce, fir, pine larch, cypress, birch and oak among the main species. Tibet?s forests are primarily old growth, with trees over 200 years old. The average stock density is 272 cubic metres per hectare, but U-Tsang?s old growth areas reach 2,300 cubic metres per hectare - the world?s highest stock density for conifers.
Aggression on Nature is criminal because Nature sustains life. If you murder a fellow human being, that is criminal. If you murder something that sustains life of everyone, that is far a greater crime. Swami Chidananda, President Divine Life Society.
MINERALS: Tibet also had rich and untouched mineral resources. Tibet has deposits of about 126 different minerals accounting for a significant share of the entire world?s reserves of gold, chromite, copper, borax and iron. The former Chinese Communist Party Chair, Yin Fatang, reported that the world?s largest supply of uranium was locked in to the Himalayan region of Tibet.
WATERS: Tibet is the source of many of the Asia?s principal rivers, which include: the Brahmaputra (Yarlung Tsangpo), the Indus (Senge Khabab), the Sutlej (Langchen Khabab), the Karnali (Macha Khabab), Arun (Phongchu), the Salween (Gyalmo Ngulchu), the Mekong (Zachu), the Yangtse (Drichu), the Huangho or Yellow River (Machu) and the Irrawaddy. These rivers flow into ten countries such as China, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. These rivers and their tributaries are the life-blood of millions of people in Asia. More than 15,000 natural lakes are found in Tibet and some of the prominent lakes are Mansarovar (Mapham Yumtso), Namtso, Yamdrok Yumtso and the largest, Kokonor Lake (Tso Ngonpo).
Research figures show that rivers originating in Tibet sustain the lives of 47 percent of the world?s population and 85 percent of Asia?s total population. Thus, the environmental issues of Tibet are not an inconsequential regional issue, but have an immense global significance to warrant international attention. More than ever before, the need to save the Tibetan Plateau from ecological devastation is urgent. Frankly, it is not the question of the survival of Tibetans, but much of humanity.
Environmental Devastation as a Result of Chinese Occupation
In 1949/1950, the People?s Republic of China invaded and has occupied Tibet in violation of international laws and norms. The ensuing cycle of resistance and repression culminated in a national uprising against the Chinese on March 10, 1959. Over an 18 month period, troops brutally killed over 87,000 Tibetans in the central part of Tibet alone. His Holiness the Dalai Lama and 80,000 Tibetans were forced into exile. Well over half of Tibet?s original territory has been incorporated into the contiguous Chinese provinces with only Central Tibet (U-Tsang) and parts of Eastern Tibet (Kham) remaining as the so-called ?Tibet Autonomous Region?.
WILDLIFE DECIMATION: Prior to the Chinese invasion, there existed a strict ban on the hunting of wild animals in Tibet. The Chinese have not enforced such restrictions. Indeed, the trophy hunting of endangered species has been actively encouraged. Rare Tibetan animals, such as the snow leopard are hunted for their fur and sold for large sums of money in the international market. A permit to hunt a rare Tibetan antelope is US$35,000 and an argali sheep US$23,000. Deer antlers, musk, bones and other parts of the wild animals are used in Chinese medicine. A large number of antelope, gazelle, blue sheep and wild yak are being poached by hunters to supply meat to markets in China, Hongkong and Europe.
China is monopolizing international attention and using the giant panda to earn hard cash as well as to gain political leverage from influential countries, even as the species is threatened with extinction. China announced on 17 August 1995 that it will give two giant pandas to Hong Kong in 1997 to mark the change of sovereignty. Earlier, China gave two pandas to the then British Prime Minister, Edward Heath and a pair to the US President Richard Nixon. There are now only about 1,000 giant pandas left in the wild. According to a Chinese researcher, there are eighty-one endangered species on the Tibetan Plateau, which includes 39 mammals, 37 birds, 4 amphibians and 1 reptile.
Only after the last tree has been cut down, only after the last rivers has been poisoned, only after the last fish has been caught, only then will we realize that money can not be eaten.Cree Indian Prophecy
DEFORESTATION: Parts of southern and eastern Tibet boast some of the best quality forest reserves in the world. Large fertile forest belts contain trees with an average height of 90 feet and average girth of 5 feet or more. Although they took hundreds of years to mature, they are now indiscriminately destroyed in the name of ?development?. An estimated 70,000 Chinese work in this industry. Similar conditions prevail in other regions of Tibet such as Markham, Gyarong, Nyarong and other areas in the Eastern and Kongpo regions of Tibet.
Tibet had 25.2 million hectares of forests in 1959, but only 13.57 million hectares in 1985; a 46 percent drop. Regrettably, this figure grows each day. By China?s own estimate, up to 80 percent of the forests in Tibet have been destroyed. The Chinese have removed over US$54 billion worth of timber from Tibet between 1959-1985 and, due to mismanagement, much of the wood has been simply left to rot on riverbanks or in logjams. Reforestation is minimal and is often unsuccessful.
Massive deforestation, mining and intensified agricultural patterns in Tibet contribute to increased soil erosion. Deposition of silt in rivers that flow from the Plateau causes siltation downstream throughout the continent, raises riverbeds to cause major floods and increases the chances for landslides. The Yangtze flood in 1998, which claimed the lives of thousands and resulted in an economic loss of US$37 billion, was blamed by President Jiang Zemin on the rampant deforestation on the Tibetan Plateau. Additionally, scientists associate frequent floods that devastate Bangladesh as being directly associated with deforestation in Tibet.
The impact of the Tibetan Plateau on the global climatic pattern is significant. Scientists have observed that there is a correlation between natural vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau and the stability of the monsoon. Monsoon rain is indispensable for the bread-baskets of south Asia. However, strong monsoon rain causes havoc in these regions in the form of floods, erosions and landslides.
Scientists have shown that the environment of the Tibetan Plateau affects the global jetstreams that blow over it. This in turn may cause Pacific typhoons and the ?El Nino? (warm ocean current) phenomenon, which stirs up ocean water and disrupts ecosystems in North and South America, Australia and Africa.
AGRICULTURAL MISMANAGEMENT: During the 1960s, the Chinese imposed agricultural reforms on Tibetans in Tibet, which led to widespread famine throughout the country. High altitude overgrazing and intensive agricultural production has resulted in the loss of many medicinal herbs and food plants, and has destroyed much of the winter food supply. These programmes have also caused wind and water erosions, which leads to desertification. According to Chinese estimates, approximately 120,000 square kilometres in China and Tibet have become desert as a result of human activity. Of the available rangeland in Tibet, at least 30 percent is considered degraded.
Chinese authorities reportedly are forcing Tibetan farmers to buy and use chemical fertilisers and insecticides. Tibetan farmers claim that these fertilisers are highly harmful to the crops as well as to the environment.
We are at war with Nature and if by chance we win the war, we shall be the losers.
E.F.Schumacher, Author of Small is Beautiful.
POPULATION TRANSFER PROGRAMMES: One of the greatest threats to Tibetan people, culture and environment is the massive influx of Chinese civilians and military personnels into Tibet, especially through population transfer programmes. In 1949, the Tibetan capital, Lhasa, had approximately 1,000 Chinese inhabitants, however today their population has skyrocketed to 200,000 and Chinese in Lhasa outnumber Tibetans 3:1. Throughout Tibet itself, the 6 million Tibetans are outnumbered in their own country by the 7.5 million Chinese. As a result of this population transfer, Tibetans have been marginalised in economic, educational, political and social spheres and the rich cultural tradition of the Tibetan people is rapidly disappearing.
In 2000, China had hoped to receive a US$40 million loan from the World Bank to resettle 60,000 ethnic Chinese into northeastern Tibet. A swelling of world-wide support educated many on China?s population transfer programmes and persuaded the World Bank to drop the project.
The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports of ?development? projects, a common assesment required in other countries, are non-existent under the totalitarian Chinese regime. On top of this, these ?development projects? serve to benefit the Chinese immigrants and encourage their immigration further into Tibet, thus reducing Tibetans to second-class citizens in their own country and violating the fundamental rights of the Tibetan people.
HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS: About 100 kilometres southwest of Lhasa is one of China?s most unsustainable and environmentally catastrophic ?development projects?. The hydroelectric station at Yamdrok Tso (Yamdrok Lake) will cause this lake, which is sacred to Tibetan Buddhists, to dry up. In 1993, the fresh water springs in the area became dry and Tibetan villagers were forced to drink the water from Yamdrok Tso. This resulted in health problems such as diarrhoea, loss of hair and skin diseases. Tibetans living in the area lost 16% of their agricultural land permanently to the project. It has been estimated that the lake will be drained completely within 20 years. This project is a clear example of the ?top down? totalitarian Chinese approach, which displays a blatant disregard for the welfare of Tibetan people, their environment and their cultural and religious convictions.
This project is a clear example of the top down totalitarian Chinese approach, which displays a blatant disregard for the welfare of Tibetan people, their environment and their cultural and religious convictions.
Nuclearisation and Militarisation
The existence of nuclear waste in Tibet was denounced by His Holiness the Dalai Lama at a press conference in Bangalore, India, in 1992. Beijing as usual, denied the existence of any nuclear waste dumping in Tibet. However, recently China had admitted to dumping of nuclear waste in Tibet. Chinese official news agency, Xinhua reported on 19 July 1995 that there is a "20 square metre dump for radioactive pollutants" in Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture near the shores of lake Kokonor, the largest lake on the Tibetan Plateau.
In 1984, China Nuclear Industry Corporation offered Western countries nuclear waste disposal facilities at US $ 1500 per kilogram. The reports suggested that around 4000 tonnes of such nuclear waste would be sent to China by the end of the 20th century (Nucleonics Week 1984).
The "Ninth Acadamy" or "Factory 211" or "North Nuclear Weapons Research and Design Acadamy" is China's top secret nuclear city adjecent to the town of Haiyan in the Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Amdo (Quinhai Province). Dr. Tashi Dolma worked at the Chabcha Hospital, directly south of the nuclear city and reported that seven children of nomads whose cattle grazed near the acadamy developed cancer that caused their white-blood-cell count to rise uncontrollably. An American doctor conducting research at the same hospital reported that these symtoms were similar to cancers caused by radiation after Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings in 1945. In the year 1989-1990, 50 people died in Thewo, Amdo all from mysterious causes. Twelve women gave birth in summer 1990 and every child was dead or died during birth. A Tibetan woman named Tsering Doma, aged 30, has given birth 7 times and not a single child has survived.
All of China's openly documented nuclear tests have been carried out at Lopnor in Xinjiang province, northwest of Tibet. These tests have been linked to the increase in cancer and birth defects, but no medical investigations have been carried out.
According to International Campaign for tibet (ICT), the first nuclear weapon was brought onto the Tibetan Plateau in 1971 and stationed in the Tsaidam (Ch:Qaidam) Basin, north Amdo. Several reports have claimed that nuclear missiles are stationed at Nagchuka,150 miles north of Lhasa. It was also confirmed there are three nuclear missile deployment sites in Amdo which are at Large Taidam, Small Tsaidam and Terlingkha (Ch:Delingha) which house Dong Feng Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (DF- ICBMs )with a range of 7,000 km. Tsaidam basin is known to be one of the most advantageous deployment sites for China because of its high altitude and isolation.
A new missile production centre is located at Drotsang (Ch: Ledu), 63 km east of Siling (Ch: Xining). It has been producing anti- frigate missiles which are being tested in Lake Kokonor and the secret code number of this Centre is 430 (Chutter,1998).
It was stated that 20 intermidiate range ballistic missiles (IRBM) and 70 medium range (MRBM) were stationed in Nagchuka. It is reported to have the largest airforce unit stationed at any secluded site. The sophisticated underground storage complex of Dhoti Phu, 3.5 km northwest of Drapchi Prison reoported contains missiles known as di due kong (ground to air) and di dui di (surface to surface).
A large underground missile storage centre is located at Payi town in Kongpo Nyingtri, TAR and the secret code number is 809 (Ch: Pa Ling Jue). During mock military exercise, a large number of such missiles are taken out of the complex which are mounted on 20 trucks and some of which had fins. During these exercises, missiles were launched vertically and horizontally to hit pre-arranged targets (chutter, 1998).
Once a peaceful buffer state between India and China, Tibet has been militarized to the point of holding at least 300,000 Chinese troops and up to 1/4 of China's nuclear missile force.
The militarisation of the Tibetan Plateau profoundly affects the geopolitical balance of the region and cause serious international tension. The Chinese military presence includes:
An estimated 300,000 to 500,000 troops of which 200,000 are permanently stationed in the so called Tibet Autonomous Region. 17 secret radar stations and 14 military airfields. 8 missiles bases (Nyingtri in Kongpo, Lhasa, Drotsang, Siling,Terlingkha, Small Tsaidam, Large Tsaidam, Golmud and Nagchuka) At least 81 ICBMs, 70 medium- range missiles and 20 intermediate range missiles
Development for Whom?
Until recently, the modernization of Tibet has been exclusively determined by China. Tibetans have had no say and the global development community had no involvement. In the 1990s the major aid agencies have developed an interest in extending their work to Tibet, especially Tibetan areas beyond the TAR.
Foreign aid to Tibet is now at least US $20 million a year and is likely to rise sharply. The model of development, poverty alleviation, and commercialization of agriculture by the development agencies fits closely the current Chinese model for accelerating the urbanization of Tibet. This model has negative impacts on the future viability of Tibetan rural and nomadic livelihood.
The biggest of the international agencies - the World Bank and the United Nations- are keen to demonstrate their commitment to environmental preservation. The result is a willingness to invest large amounts in projects in Tibet. Tibetans already under the illegal occupation of China lack any public voices and are excluded from involvement in projects in whose name they are being designed. Especially lacking is the right to actively participate in the planning and design of development projects. The design of development projects. The Chinese Communist Party insists, it is the sole incarnation of the will of the masses. Tibetans may not speak; they are spoken for.
At the worst, these projects, in the name of environmental protection, could make nomadic pastoralism unviable as a sustainable way of life. They make Tibetans depends on the Chinese economy in which producers are unable to control the terms of trade. If Tibetans settle in towns integrated into the Chinese economy, with less use for Tibetan ways or even Tibetan language, but able to buy colour television set and motorbikes, China may confidently foresee the end of Tibetan nationalism.
That scenario is by no means certain to happen, but it is plausible. Chinese development trends on the Tibetan Plateau on the whole have marginalised Tibetans and is encouraging the influx of Chinese migrants. There is no effective local participation in these so-called development projects.
Recently a newly arrived Tibetan refugee from Tibet reported to the Voice of America on 15 May 1998 that total number of shops, restaurants and bars is 1592 in Chamdo region. From this total, 1433 (90 percent) belongs to Chinese and only 159 (10) to Tibetans. Lhasa, the capital and the holiest city of Tibet has now more than 1,806 Chinese brothels.
Mr. Tenzin, Deputy secretary, Communist Party of "Tibet Autonomous Region", in his earlier statement said that he would eradicate these brothels in Lhasa, but no action has been taken so far, as the Chinese brothels owners have good relations with Chinese officials to carry out their shameful activities.
How You Can Help Tibet Through Eco-Friendly Actions
Write letters to your parliaments informing them the real situation in Tibet, expressing concern over Tibet's environment under China's colonial rule and its detrimental effect on the situation of your country. Write letters or demonstrate in the nearest Chinese Embassy asking them to stop ecocide in Tibet. Establish a Tibet Support Group in your community. Organize workshops, conference, video & slide show and seminars on environment of Tibet. Participate in community meetings on environment and raise the issue of Tibet in such fora. Impress upon your government to provide scholarship for environmental research on Tibet and other environmental projects. Tell your friends about the situation in Tibet. Email them our internet address (www.tibet.net/diir/enviro/) and bookmark our home page. If you are too busy, you can let your financial contributions work for Tibet.
Environment and Development Desk (EDD)
Established in March 1990 at the Department of Information and International Relations (DIIR), this Desk was earlier known as Environment Desk. In addition to monitoring and reporting environmental situation inside Tibet, it used to be active in environmental education projects in Tibetan communities in exile. Over the years, EDD has begun to focus more on environment and development issues inside Tibet.
EDD?s sphere of activities are mainly focused on Tibet, and its chief goals are:
To monitor and research on environment and development issues inside Tibet; To disseminate information and carry out selective advocacy on promoting sustainable development inside Tibet;
To create awareness on environmental issues in the exiled Tibetan community.
Environment and Development Desk
DIIR, Central Tibetan Administration
Dharamshala ? 176215
Tel: +91-1892-222457, 222510
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
Tibet Justice Center/formerly ICLT - www.tibetjustice.org
Amnesty International - www.amnesty.org
Center for International Environmental Law - www.ciel.org
Earth First! - www.earthfirst.org
Earth Island Institute - www.earthisland.org
Earth Summit 2002 - www.earthsummit2002.org
Earth Watch - www.earthwatch.org
Friends of the Earth - www.foe.org
Greenpeace International - www.greenpeace.org
Himalandes Initiative - himalandes.perucultural.org.pe/ingles/index.htm
Honor the Earth - www.honorearth.org
Indigenous Environment Network - www.ienearth.org
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) -
International Rivers Network - www.irn.org
The Mountain Forum - www.mtnforum.org
The Mountain Institute - www.mountain.org
The Nature Conservancy - nature.org
Oxfam - www.oxfam.org
Project Underground - www.moles.org
Sierra Club - www.sierraclub.org
Tibet Environment Watch - www.tew.org
Tibetan Plateau Project - www.earthisland.org/tpp
TRAFFIC - www.traffic.org
United Nations - www.un.org
UN Environment Programme - www.unep.org
US Embassy, China - www.usembassy-china.org.cn
US Fish and Wildlife Service - www.usfws.gov
Wildlife Conservation Society - www.wcs.org
The World Bank - www.worldbank.org
World Commission on Dams - www.dams.org
World Conservation Monitoring Centre - www.unep-wcmc.org
World Conservation Union (IUCN) - www.iucn.org
World Water Council - www.worldwatercouncil.org
World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) - www.panda.org
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